In Rwanda, after 1994 Genocide tremendous efforts have been made in order to improve the water and sanitation sector. In these days, Rwanda government has made efforts in improving available quantity of water in use. Rainwater harvesting is one among of the solution of water scarcity in the country. The objectives of this work is to estimate the water demand, the quantity of rainwater that can be harvested from Integrated Polytechnic Regional College of Karongi (IPRC Karongi) buildings, the design of storage tanks and the implementation possibilities of this project. The required water demand is estimated to 45 liters per capita per day. The data have been analyzed and the calculated quantity of rainwater is 12,296.15m3 per year and the storage capacity is1, 496.24m3. At the end of the work, the result shows that rainwater harvesting technique can save 22% of the bills paid for water every year. We note that the report deals with untreated water for non-consumptive activities. It is recommended to do further research concerning the treatment of rainwater for drinking purposes, so that the students may access the treated rainwater. I suggest implementing this project as soon as possible because of its many advantages.
As the title shows, the purpose of this project is to improve dwelling area in apartment scale. Today high mass of residential zones and high price of land leads the employers and users to residential architecture. Apartment life creates an undeniable situation for human beings of which we can point out chances and threats for residents. Unfortunately compact structure of big cities and lack of land along with financial issues and growing needs of users to dwellings and also inconformity of dwelling structure with today’s life, and also high physical and social price leads to denial of the identity of dwelling. Also scales of apartment units is decreasing by sharp increase of condense and high price of land in center of big cities. This fact reveals the importance of exact structure for apartment in small scale. The purpose of this research is to reach at principles of designing optimized dwelling in large scale by taking into account factors such as society, family and individuals. This article by studying revenues needed in each section, along with using questionnaire and by conforming residents in small scale, gets closer to the proposed principle of optimizing apartment in small scale.3 main principles for optimizing apartment in small scale are: contracting, applicability, flexible furniture and glassines.
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is a technology that focuses on sustainability and support the sustainable environment development. The implementation of RWH systems provides many environment and financial benefits. Some of the environment benefits of RWH system are the reduction of surface runoff, reduce the burden of soil aquifer, and provide the availability of clean water. This study analyzed the RWH system implementation benefits both in environment and financial side. The financial benefits of RWH system implementation are calculated based on a number of rainwater that can be used to replace the need for clean water.The environment benefits defined by the reduced of main water tap use and the reduced of generated roof runoff volume. This study used a simple RWH system that use the roof as a catchment area, the pipeline as a distribution system, and tank as the storage system. The water use is for domestic potable and no potable for a household with up to four occupants in Bandung. The catchment area is taken 70 m2. A water balance model for various scenarios was developed to calculate the algorithm of the system. The costs taken in RWH system includes the construction, installation, maintenance and operational costs. The analysis shows that the implementation of RWH systems provides advantages over the use of conventional systems. It can save clean water use up to 54,92% and provide runoff reduction up to 71,53%. RWH system applied requires additional costs approximately only 0,66% from the value of the house. It was found that it is possible to achieve payback in RWH system implementation under several scenarios.
The aim of this research is formulating the motif pattern of dress which can be extended into various sizes basic dress in which the motif is sanggit patterned. This employed action-participatory research to test the draft pattern by actively involved the batik entrepreneurs, motif designers and tailors. The data were collected through the techniques of observation, interviews, FGDs and document analysis. The result produces a pattern of brock pattern rectangular dress motif, 115 cm width and 250 cm length, divided into 12 symmetrical objects of vertical axis. The pattern works to develop the motifs, which can be made into a basic block batik dress of various sizes (S, M, L, XL and XXL). It is quite effective and efficient to develop random batik asymmetrical motifs and the resulting motif can meet sanggit at the front dress or zip, the left, right sides, sleeve and specific motifs on darts and neck line.
Keywords: patterns; motifs; basic dress; batik; sanggit.
Swimming pools have become an essential attachment to most habitable coastal construction such as hotels, condominiums and single family residences. A large swimming pool type structure may obstruct the free flow of flood water and increase the turbulence. This in turn may increase the scour potential and the wave/debris action on the building and foundation. A conceptual breakaway concrete swimming pool design is described herein. It is demonstrated that this pool will withstand everyday factored water/soil loading, but will collapse and break away under extreme wave action, thereby minimizing the detrimental effects of a solid pool. This study was done based on the serious issues of stress remarkable from various institution in Rwanda, especially those who are increasing their life standards in spending their money in hardworking. The main aim is to design public swimming pool appropriate to such organization and uniquely beneficial to the improvement of their health through leisure. It is designed to serve an institution of 200 members approximately within their special guests. The site was visited, and some data were collected. Soil parameters consist of internal friction angle, internal friction angle coefficient and the unit weight of the subsoil. The site visit permits really to select a shaped rectangular pool of public swimming pool. This study did not include bills of quantities which would be another way considered before when deciding the implementation. The results observed in this study is that a selected rectangular swimming pool can be stable for concrete of fcu=30N/m, on stem and key elements T20@300C/C bottom and T10@200C/C top can be used, at T20@280C/C and T10@220C/C bottom and top reinforcement respectively was found at heel, toe can use T12@300C/C and T10@220C/C and slab T10@200C/C and T10@300C/C bottom and top reinforcement respectively. At the end of the study different conclusion and recommendation was highlighted.
The automatic basketball score counter is the system implemented to count the basketball goals when a team score a goal. This is achieved by using push buttons, Arduino and 7 segments display. When a team score a goal and referee accept it by pushing on up push button, Arduino send the command to the 7 segment and it counts one goal. As you continue to push that push button the 7 segment will add one goal to the goals of scored team. When scored goal create confusion and referee decide to refuse it by pushing on down push button, the 7 segment will remove one goal to the goals of a team. This study carried out in Kigali city of Rwanda intended to the design of the automatic basketball score counter machine using arduino in order to prevent the conflict between the two team and to reduce the time. The objective was to design the basketball score counter which will operate automatically. The findings have shown that the best alternative is to use the Arduino as a command. The project work concludes that if the automatic basketball score counter was used in national basketball competition and help for reducing misunderstanding about goal counting.
La messagerie instantanée peut être comprise comme des outils qui permettent l’échange des messages qui se fait très souvent par écrit et en temps réel de manière synchrone (LeMagIT, 2020). Elle est fréquemment solliciter pour résoudre des besoins de communications et d’échange de données. Au Burkina –Faso, dans les institutions étatiques, on assiste à la mise en place de groupes communément appelé groupe whatsapp dont l’objectif est de partager des informations entre membre du groupe dans le cadre d’un projet. Cela n’est pas sans conséquence pour ceux qui sont averti. En effet, certes la sécurité est améliorée selon les concepteurs, mais les risques pour la gestion de nos propres donnés et nos vies privées se posent.
In Africa, the linkages between zoning planning and affordable housing have not been adequately assessed. In scenarios where zoning system has been enforced for a long time, such as in the United States, it has been often labelled as exclusionary due to how it limits the poor to access housing. With zoning being at the heart of the current planning system in Rwanda, this research aims at examining these linkages in an emerging urban setting such as Kigali city. This study employed a mixed-method approach to assess how the master plan and zoning requirements affect housing cost and the ease of accessing housing for low-income households. Results reveal a total house supply gap to 30,000 units between 2012-2020 of which more than half is affordable housing. While zoning code requires the use of primarily imported materials which increases the cost of housing, more than 70 per cent of residents earn too minimal income to qualify for traditional mortgage loans. Therefore, the case of Kigali city emphasizes the mismatch between zoning assumptions and underlying social and economic conditions. Moreover, the euphoria to meet master plan objectives encourages the conversion of prevalent informal settlements into high-end market neighborhoods overlooking the negative impact on affordable housing. This study suggests the relaxation of zoning regulations for certain income thresholds, re-defining affordability to match the local context and generating housing affordability indexes regularly to inform the government’s urban housing strategies.
This study focused on the use of technology in learning the English language at G.S Bushenge, a school located in Nyamasheke district, western province of Rwanda. The aim was to answer research questions regarding the use of computers and projectors on student performance in English learning, the extent to which mobile learning plays a key role in student performance and identifying the impacts of classroom technology tools on students’ performance in the study area. The study adopted a mixed research method (qualitative and quantitative) in which participants comprising teachers, principals and students, or 78 participants in total, were randomly and purposely selected in GS Bushenge located in Nyamasheke district, Rwanda. Study data was generated through semistructured interviews and questionnaires, and analysis was performed with generated tables and graphs showing the results.The study yielded results, showing that 78 (100%) agree that at G.S Bushenge there are technological tools such as computers and phones. In addition, 78 (100%) proclaimed the absence of a projector stating that classroom technology tools (like computers and telephones) are needed in the delivery of the lesson. No less than 78 (100%) indicated that they were important and had positive effects on students and teachers. In addition, 3 (100%) teachers and head of school show that everything in an exaggerated way has negative effects, which is the reason why this is the reason why we mention the high cost of technological tools, passivity of learners, creation of distraction, provision of erroneous information on the Internet as negative impacts in use of technological tools in the classroom. Finally, the researcher made recommendations for students to be eager to copy with technology and use it for educational purposes. Teachers were also recommended to deal with disruptive student behavior. The government should help teachers acquire their own technological tools and train them in their use in education.
The first fear during the 19th century period focused on the disintegration of moral values embedded in the development of capitalism and the pressure for accumulation and commoditization, Islamic thought had to describe “societies” functioning in its inner logic. Changing a society needs to view it as a social device and to understand its logic. With modern economy, new questions are posed such as: Are Muslims ready to face globalization and maintain their faith? Muslims in doing business are they swallowed by commercialism? Are Muslim obliged to act in business without thinking their acts, either they are halal or haram? Raison why Islamic finance is key sector in Islamic economy. In order to conduct as well as possible this research different methods and techniques are used such as interviews, meetings, discussions, and seminaries as focus group with some personalities involved in Islamic finance industry. From these investigations we found that some of Islamic finance products are known in Burkina Faso and some are proposed by the only one Islamic finance institution that is Coris Bank Baraka. It’s possible to distinguish two categories of financing techniques: those that are based on a participatory financing (Mudhâraba and Musharaka) and those based on an asset (Murabaha and Ijara). The Islamic financial industries products are suitable, it seems that the concept of free interest and respectful of the religion are important for consumers. Islamic finance windows and Islamic bank can conduct successfully shari’ah compliant products according the regulator (BCEAO), the literature review, and most of the leaders, we met in Burkina Faso.